This is an article about making and sustainable development of buildings which are cost effective and eco-friendly and more appropriately termed as "GREEN BUILDINGS". In making of such buildings, particular emphasis is given to increasing efficiency by which the building resources are put to use, be it raw materials, energy or water and at the same time minimizing the harmful effects on human health & environment. Architects of green building projects attempt to safeguard air, water and earth by giving equal importance to environment and aesthetics for maintaining harmony with the natural surroundings. It's just not a random mix of resources with technologies but needs to adhere to the LEED benchmark (standard green building rating system) which requires careful planning over the complete life cycle of the building through its design, construction and operation by choosing nature friendly materials and construction practices.

What makes a building project be considered - GREEN
The golden rule to follow is to Reuse - Reduce - Recycle
It's always best to reuse materials, instead of producing a new one for saving on resources and energy. Reducing dependence on new materials and recycling of products after its useful life are all considered green practices.


  • Planned landscape for maximum solar energy collection
  • Use of energy efficient lighting and appliances
  • Ventilation system for efficient cooling and heating
  • Water saving fixtures and devices
  • Alternate sources of power
  • Use of non-synthetic, non-toxic materials in construction
  • Minimal disturbance to the natural fauna and flora
  • Use of locally available materials for interiors
  • Designed for maximum availability of space
  • Adaptive reuse of older buildings

Green buildings could follow a variety of techniques to reduce its impact on our health and environment ranging from use of renewal energy resources to plants and trees for reduction of rainwater run-off and placing gravel in open space instead of asphalt for replenishment of ground water.
There are several key factors involved in designing of such "GREEN BUILDINGS".

Besides recycled metal or stone, typical plant materials which replenishes itself are considered green building materials, such as wood, straw or bamboo as they are reusable, renewable, recyclable and non-toxic. Considering different geographical regions the list could include baked earth, paper/board flakes, sheep wool, linoleum, clay, flax, sea grass, cork, coconut, wooden fibre, sand stone etc; whichever is locally available so that energy is minimized in their transportation to the construction site.

Green buildings invariably use techniques for reduction of energy consumption across workplace and open space by making use of high efficiency insulation materials and passive solar designs. Effective window placement can provide more natural light and thus lower the need for lighting during daytime. Besides on site renewable source of energy significantly reduces the overall impact of building on surrounding environment as power consumption is often the most expensive component of building maintenance.

During construction as well as maintenance operations much thought is given in green buildings for reducing wastage of materials, energy and water. During construction period the architect's goal is to ensure that minimum materials are sent from site to landfills. An alternate to centralized water treatment plants could be through installation of rainwater collectors for non-potable purposes. For stopping run-off of human waste, the same can be settled into a carbon sink which will provide the soil with organic nutrients, besides remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and offset greenhouse gas emissions. Alternatively by putting such waste into a biogas plant along with other biological waste liquid fertilizer can also be produced, which is terms of energy cost is much cheaper than artificial fertilizer.


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